- Does the second law of Thermodynamics only hold for closed systems?
A common defense against criticism that the theory of evolution contradicts the Second Law of Thermodynamics is to object that the second law only holds for closed systems; not for open systems, as the earth. This assertion is false. The second law also holds for open systems, if the sum of the energy flows that pass their system boundary is zero. It can be proven that the earth, after removing living nature, is such an open system.
- Ten misconceptions about how the DNA changes
In 2015, the Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded for the discovery of the mechanisms for mutation protection and repair that are present in every cell. Because of this, in the media and on internet fora (e.g. SKEPP.be) a discussion has arisen on the question "Can mutations produce mutation protection?" and the question "Does mutation protection break down evolutionary theory?". In these discussions, many misconceptions on how the DNA changes become evident.
In February 2011, the peer reviewed Open Evolution Journal (Vol.5, p1-4) published the article "The Evolutionary Dynamics of Digital and Nucleotide Codes: A Mutation Protection Perspective" http://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOEVOLJ/TOEVOLJ-5-1.pdf . The article refers to the largely unknown fact that both digital codes (computer programs) and nucleotide codes (DNA) are protected against mutations. The article concludes that living nature continuously adapts to changing circumstances by gene-regulation and the recombination of gene variants ('alleles') and selection. These mechanisms for random change and selection neither produce new alleles nor expand the length of the nucleotide code, and operate within the boundaries of mutation protection. Growth of the length of nucleotide codes through the accumulation of irreparable, advantageous, code expanding, inheritable mutations – as proposed by evolutionary theory – requires the mutation protection to be switched off or at least to dysfunction. Dysfunctioning mutation protection, however, is the origin of cancer and hereditary diseases, which reduce the capacity to live and to reproduce. The article thus reveals a paradox that seems irresolvable as dysfunctioning mutation protection cannot be both a necessity for evolution and a disadvantage for survival. This contradiction in evolutionary theory requires the theory to be formulated more accurately – probably by division into a micro- and a macro-evolutionary theory – and to rethink the innovation capacity of random change. The directions for further research sketched in the article include the search for an explanation of how a mechanism that causes hereditary diseases and cancer can transform bacteria into humans. A video presentation of the article can
be found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzh6Ct5cg1o
In April 2011, the article has been put in discussion at the science forum of SKEPP (= society of skeptics; unfortunately in Dutch) http://forum.skepp.be/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=2603 ). In that discussion, the following conclusions were drawn from the biological facts and the equivalence between digital and nucleotide codes. Click here.
One page summary of the Evoskepsis Association's criticism of the theory of evolution.
Integral discussion of the relationships between belief, science, naturalism, fundamentalism, micro-evolution and macro-evolution, from the perspective of the darwin year 2009.
The main points of scientific criticism of the theory of evolution, mentioned on this site, are put down in a folder, which can be used in Secondary Education.
A scientific investigation of the contradiction of the
theory of evolution with everyday experience and empirical science is put down in a paper, which aims at the stimulation of the debate in the scientific community over the tenability of the theory of evolution.
From April 2006 - February 2007 the paper mentioned above (Progress in Complexity, Information and Design, vol 4.1, July 2005) has been discussed at the web-forum of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design (ISCID).
The conclusions of the discussion can be found at:
and here on the Evoskepsis website ==> Show conclusions
We invite you to pass your remarks, questions and reactions to us.
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